Economic growth models always go through cyclic and anticyclic processes. Somehow, it is like test they take and results will depend upon their stability and resistance.

In any case, manpower takes most of the damage while these processes are on and consequences are usually devastating. Unemployment increases and a part of the population is put aside because it has specialized in an obsolete model that will never come back. This population group must reinvent itself.

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New industrial revolution, known as the fourth industrial revolution, implies a set of important factors deeply concerning current social system.

Previous industrial revolutions transformed all productive sectors, which came along with migration from towns to cities and to industrial areas. In those places, machines took over manual worker. Currently there is a new component that is growing unstoppable: technology.


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Both of them, with different goals but with a common artistic gift for gastronomy, have made a revolution.  One has contributed to create a brand: Peru. The other has spread a healthier food style transforming cooking into a lever with a social effect. In both cases, technology, innovation and education are the columns in which their movements are built on.


Gastón Acurio


Jamie Oliver

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The 20 most important questions that any presidential candidate should answer:


  1. Explain with only a word your productive model proposal.
  2. Point out the main drivers of your economic proposal and the reasons why you have selected them and why others have been rejected.
  3. Give the fundamentals for your Spanish energy scheme, parts and how you would consider sustainable energies.
  4. Which would your current and future -next four years- SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) matrix be for Spain.
  5. How would you determine the competitive advantages for Spain that will become its competitive advantage?
  6. Towards which region in the world would you turn Spanish international economic relations to?
  7. Which are your education model key points and which are the differential factors compared to other countries within its zone of influence?
  8. How would you face in short, medium and long term the aging population problem and what’s your plan for a sustainable welfare system?
  9. Which sanitary management models currently applied from around the world you know? Which could be the most suitable for Spain without clashing with the one given today to Spaniards?
  10. Which are the top ten public policies you would implement within your firs year on office, how would you finance them and which measurable outcome do you expect?
  11. In case any of these public policies fails, what would your alternative plan be?
  12. What is your Government plan to put Spain among the top innovative countries?
  13. How are you going to make Spain a more suitable place for entrepreneurs? Do your proposals come from any specific success case or they have been thought specifically for the Spanish reality?
  14. How is your Government action going to push all the different Spanish economic sectors to become technology leaders?
  15. How are you going to turn Spain into an English bilingual country, or at least to have proficiency speakers, and how long is it going to take?
  16. How are you going to make the technological revolution a lever for equal opportunities and to avoid it to become an inequality and a social gap factor?
  17. What’s your agenda for adapting current laws to the digital revolution?
  18. What are talent recirculating policies about and give the main ideas to implement it within education and professional areas from an international perspective?
  19. How are Spanish students and professionals going to acquire experience abroad and how have you thought about returning all this talent and knowledge back to our country?
  20. What are your top ten measurable goals that in case of not acquiring them will imply a failure as a politician and as President of Spain?


A new citizen, sophisticated and demanding

In one of the last posts, technology was spotted as a driver for social, economic, political, legal and environmental change.

Technology, as a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness, can be regarded as an economic lever, responsible for 25% of GDP growth.

Avoiding to adapt to this new reality is not, therefore, an option. Due to its huge impact, the outcome is that citizen, client or consumer, becomes the center of everything instead of the product.

Current citizen’s profile has evolved in different areas in how she/he communicates, socializes or builds up an identity. This new citizen gets information through multichannel platforms, assuming a key role in debates and having an opinion about matters in which he/she might be interested. Her/his voice, amplified and critical, demands quick and quality answers, in a more sophisticated way.

This new situation rises a challenge as a new paradigm: the business management of the citizen in his/her role as client in the technological environment.


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Analysing competitiveness key factors becomes essential to successfully tackle the present and future economic environment. This has been so far the goal pursued in several previous articles in this blog.

The most relevant factor to take into consideration in order to become competitive and play the field in big markets was a complex operation.

Coming up with it involved dissecting the list of countries by R+D investment rating and establishing a difference between this indicator and the set of variables that determine the innovative character of a country.

This factor will conclude, in terms of international competitive relevance, which countries lie at the forefront of international influence and which must face difficulties and limitations for being placed right behind or even farther.

So, taking these elements into consideration, current global economic power epicentre is being moved towards the East by new prominent areas specialized in trading goods, along with countries from other parts of the world like the USA.


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Población mundial y mercados

En los dos últimos siglos, el crecimiento de la población mundial ha sido exponencial hasta alcanzar los más de 7.300 millones de habitantes que hay en la actualidad. Para el año 2030 se espera una población de 8.500 millones de habitantes.

En esta evolución, el PIB per cápita ha ido aumentando también, lo cual indica un aumento continuo de la riqueza mundial. Viendo el incremento gradual de la clase media, que en la actualidad alcanza el 50%, podemos decir que también viene reflejado en una mejora de las condiciones de vida de las personas.

Se estima que el porcentaje de población dentro de la clase media alcanzará  el 57% en el año 2030. Eso significa que más de 1.300 millones de personas se incorporarán a esta categoría durante los próximos 15 años.

Si analizamos ese crecimiento, observamos que tendrá lugar en la zona Asia-Pacífico, moviendo el centro de gravedad mundial hacia el Este. Pero, ¿cómo será el futuro?


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Steve Jobs dijo en una ocasión que limitaba el uso de la tecnología por parte de sus hijos en casa.

Chris Anderson, el antiguo editor de la revista Wired, dijo que ha visto los peligros de la tecnología de primera mano y que no quiere ver qué les pasará a sus hijos.

Entonces, la tecnología, como son los teléfonos inteligentes o internet, ¿está mermando la creatividad?


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La respuesta es obvia: además de los cocineros, mucha gente. Es cierto que cada uno a su estilo sabe hacer una tortilla de patata. Pero la pregunta tiene un trasfondo mayor y lo relevante es de dónde surgió el hacer y el cómo hacer un plato tan popular como la tortilla de patata.

Uno puede conseguir los ingredientes (huevos, patatas, sal y los aderezos que le gusten a cada uno, como la cebolla o el chorizo) y con ello ya tendremos el capital físico. Podemos tener, además, la mano maestra de nuestras madres o, en algunos casos, ser nosotros mismos quienes con nuestra mejor voluntad representemos el capital humano. La cuestión es que sin la receta, sin instrucciones sobre cómo mezclar los ingredientes, en qué proporciones hacerlo y con precisión acerca del tiempo de cocción, la tortilla de patata no sería una realidad hoy en día.

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Innovación y tecnología

Innovación es un concepto que puede tener múltiples interpretaciones o significados. No obstante, en todas sus variedades semánticas, implica un significado que engloba dentro la tecnología. En definitiva, la innovación usa como herramienta la tecnología para desarrollarse, aunque su dimensión va más allá.

Innovar no sólo es inventar, sino también hacer cosas nuevas de tal manera que se mejoren los resultados actuales mediante la creación de ventajas competitivas. Por tanto, la clave reside en la capacidad para producir un cambio.

Se puede innovar desde un modelo de negocio hasta en la forma de operar en las cadenas de producción. Realmente, aunque no seamos conscientes, estamos innovando todo el tiempo. Y la innovación impacta sobre el ámbito económico, social y cultural.

Ambos conceptos son los responsables principales de la transformación digital.


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