Nunca hasta ahora había visto a Juan Guaidó en sus comparecencias públicas figurar en un segundo plano, como puede apreciarse en esta fotografía (recién regresado a Venezuela). Junto con la tensión que reflejan muchas caras (y manos), es una imagen distinta de la que nos tiene acostumbrados, ostentando el rol de protagonista principal y en primera línea siempre. De todas maneras, es sólo una foto, un instante, ¿no es verdad? ¿o no?

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Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 by Christian Manrique

Most likely, in 20 years we will work 30 hours per week instead of 40, but in more specialized positions, more qualified and strongly related to the knowledge economy. And living with robots. If countries do not prepare, global unemployment will increase significantly.

The german concept of Industry 4.0, Intelligent Industry or 4th Industrial Revolution is for real in development and involves the digitalization of production processes in industry, either through sensors or through information systems, transforming these processes to make them more efficient.

Its progress is characterized by continuous growth and rapid changes, with the goal of prospering and improving living standards through services and products with high added value.

But there is a new concept that is being coined, focused on the people but not on the industry. The Society 5.0.

Captura de pantalla 2019-02-12 a las 9.55.25
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Industria 4.0 y Sociedad 5.0, por Christian Manrique

Muy probablemente, dentro de 20 años trabajaremos 30 horas semanales en lugar de 40, pero en puestos más especializados, más cualificados y fuertemente relacionados con la economía del conocimiento. Y todo ello junto a los robots. Si lo países no se preparan, el desempleo mundial aumentará de una manera significativa.

El concepto alemán de Industria 4.0, Industria Inteligente o 4ª Revolución Industrial es una realidad actual en desarrollo que conlleva asociado en su ADN la digitalización de los procesos productivos en la industria, bien mediante sensores bien mediante sistemas de información, transformando dichos procesos para hacerlos más eficientes.

Su avance se caracteriza por un continuo crecimiento y un ritmo de cambios muy rápidos, con el objetivo de prosperar y mejorar los niveles de vida a través de servicios y productos de alto valor añadido.

Pero hay un nuevo concepto que se está acuñando, centrado en el individuo y no en la industria. La Sociedad 5.0.

Captura de pantalla 2019-02-12 a las 9.55.25

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Economic growth models always go through cyclic and anticyclic processes. Somehow, it is like test they take and results will depend upon their stability and resistance.

In any case, manpower takes most of the damage while these processes are on and consequences are usually devastating. Unemployment increases and a part of the population is put aside because it has specialized in an obsolete model that will never come back. This population group must reinvent itself.

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New industrial revolution, known as the fourth industrial revolution, implies a set of important factors deeply concerning current social system.

Previous industrial revolutions transformed all productive sectors, which came along with migration from towns to cities and to industrial areas. In those places, machines took over manual worker. Currently there is a new component that is growing unstoppable: technology.


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Both of them, with different goals but with a common artistic gift for gastronomy, have made a revolution.  One has contributed to create a brand: Peru. The other has spread a healthier food style transforming cooking into a lever with a social effect. In both cases, technology, innovation and education are the columns in which their movements are built on.


Gastón Acurio


Jamie Oliver

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The 20 most important questions that any presidential candidate should answer:


  1. Explain with only a word your productive model proposal.
  2. Point out the main drivers of your economic proposal and the reasons why you have selected them and why others have been rejected.
  3. Give the fundamentals for your Spanish energy scheme, parts and how you would consider sustainable energies.
  4. Which would your current and future -next four years- SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) matrix be for Spain.
  5. How would you determine the competitive advantages for Spain that will become its competitive advantage?
  6. Towards which region in the world would you turn Spanish international economic relations to?
  7. Which are your education model key points and which are the differential factors compared to other countries within its zone of influence?
  8. How would you face in short, medium and long term the aging population problem and what’s your plan for a sustainable welfare system?
  9. Which sanitary management models currently applied from around the world you know? Which could be the most suitable for Spain without clashing with the one given today to Spaniards?
  10. Which are the top ten public policies you would implement within your firs year on office, how would you finance them and which measurable outcome do you expect?
  11. In case any of these public policies fails, what would your alternative plan be?
  12. What is your Government plan to put Spain among the top innovative countries?
  13. How are you going to make Spain a more suitable place for entrepreneurs? Do your proposals come from any specific success case or they have been thought specifically for the Spanish reality?
  14. How is your Government action going to push all the different Spanish economic sectors to become technology leaders?
  15. How are you going to turn Spain into an English bilingual country, or at least to have proficiency speakers, and how long is it going to take?
  16. How are you going to make the technological revolution a lever for equal opportunities and to avoid it to become an inequality and a social gap factor?
  17. What’s your agenda for adapting current laws to the digital revolution?
  18. What are talent recirculating policies about and give the main ideas to implement it within education and professional areas from an international perspective?
  19. How are Spanish students and professionals going to acquire experience abroad and how have you thought about returning all this talent and knowledge back to our country?
  20. What are your top ten measurable goals that in case of not acquiring them will imply a failure as a politician and as President of Spain?


A new citizen, sophisticated and demanding

In one of the last posts, technology was spotted as a driver for social, economic, political, legal and environmental change.

Technology, as a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness, can be regarded as an economic lever, responsible for 25% of GDP growth.

Avoiding to adapt to this new reality is not, therefore, an option. Due to its huge impact, the outcome is that citizen, client or consumer, becomes the center of everything instead of the product.

Current citizen’s profile has evolved in different areas in how she/he communicates, socializes or builds up an identity. This new citizen gets information through multichannel platforms, assuming a key role in debates and having an opinion about matters in which he/she might be interested. Her/his voice, amplified and critical, demands quick and quality answers, in a more sophisticated way.

This new situation rises a challenge as a new paradigm: the business management of the citizen in his/her role as client in the technological environment.


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Analysing competitiveness key factors becomes essential to successfully tackle the present and future economic environment. This has been so far the goal pursued in several previous articles in this blog.

The most relevant factor to take into consideration in order to become competitive and play the field in big markets was a complex operation.

Coming up with it involved dissecting the list of countries by R+D investment rating and establishing a difference between this indicator and the set of variables that determine the innovative character of a country.

This factor will conclude, in terms of international competitive relevance, which countries lie at the forefront of international influence and which must face difficulties and limitations for being placed right behind or even farther.

So, taking these elements into consideration, current global economic power epicentre is being moved towards the East by new prominent areas specialized in trading goods, along with countries from other parts of the world like the USA.


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Población mundial y mercados

En los dos últimos siglos, el crecimiento de la población mundial ha sido exponencial hasta alcanzar los más de 7.300 millones de habitantes que hay en la actualidad. Para el año 2030 se espera una población de 8.500 millones de habitantes.

En esta evolución, el PIB per cápita ha ido aumentando también, lo cual indica un aumento continuo de la riqueza mundial. Viendo el incremento gradual de la clase media, que en la actualidad alcanza el 50%, podemos decir que también viene reflejado en una mejora de las condiciones de vida de las personas.

Se estima que el porcentaje de población dentro de la clase media alcanzará  el 57% en el año 2030. Eso significa que más de 1.300 millones de personas se incorporarán a esta categoría durante los próximos 15 años.

Si analizamos ese crecimiento, observamos que tendrá lugar en la zona Asia-Pacífico, moviendo el centro de gravedad mundial hacia el Este. Pero, ¿cómo será el futuro?


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